Gender pay gap

{{Armenia}} | Trade union: {{HWUA}} | Sector: {{Health and Social Services}} | The ratio of the average wage of women to that of men fell from 75.0% in 2005 to 67.1% in 2006 but then rose to 71.9% and further to 72.2% in 2008. {{Czech Republic}} | Trade union: {{TUHSSC}} | Sector: {{Health and Social Services}} | According to the CZSO statistics office, the average monthly pay of men in the health service and social care sector is CZK 30,666 (EUR 1,226), while the average pay of their female counterparts is CZK 21,824 (EUR 873). This means that women’s average earnings in 2008 stood at 71.2% of men’s average earnings. In 2008, median pay was CZK 23,020 (EUR 920) for men and CZK 20,773 (EUR 831) for women. Women’s median pay is thus 88.4% that of men’s. [For more details > CZSO->http://www.czso.cz/csu/2009edicniplan.nsf/t/E4003C2E5C/$File/1413094436.xls] According to data for 2002, the average earnings of women were around 66% those of men, so the trend is positive and women’s pay is slowly approaching men’s average earnings. {{Denmark}} | Trade union: {{HK Stat}} | Sector: {{National administration}} | According to our data, there are generally no areas that emerge with an unexplained wage gap of more than 5%. In general, therefore, we do not have differences in pay levels between men and women within our area of work. This has also been a particular area of focus for the Wages commission and has involved comparing typical salaries of female and male jobs - and on this issue the Wages Commission report identified some problem areas. | Trade union: {{FOA}} | Sector: {{Municipal}} | Examples of the gender pay for specific occupations in 2010: 5.5% health and social care helpers in municipalities; 4.7% health and social care assistants in municipalities and 7.4% health and social care assistants in the regions. In contrast, women's average pay is higher than men's for nursery assistants in the municipalities by 6.3%. {{Finland}} | Trade union: {{FIPSU}} | Sector: {{Public sector}} | The gender pay gap in various sectors is monitored by comparing the earnings of full-time personnel for their regular working time. The table below illustrates the trend in the gender pay gap as of 2004. | {{2004 }} | 81.3% | | {{2005 }} | 81.9% | | {{2006 }} | 82.0% | | {{2007 }} | 83.1% | | {{2008 }} | 83.7% | | {{2009}}* | 84.1% | {{France}} | Trade union: {{CGT Santé }} | Sector: {{Health and Social Services}} | In the public sector there is a pay gap of 27.5% according to official figures. | Trade union: {{FNEM-FO}} | Sector: {{Energy}} | In 2009, at sector level the pay gap based on the main salary of those employed full time on grades H-F on statutory conditions was on average 0.1%. This is explained by the fact that men and women and on the same pay scale and that the structure of jobs is relatively homogenous. But this calculation does not take account of seniority and overtime, for example. If the average reflects a very small gap then this is just an average and it is necessary to examine the data in more detail – the pay gap at the company level appears more worrying (pay gaps of more than 10% in some places) – gaps in terms of supplementary pay. {{Georgia}} | Trade union: {{HPSCWU}} | Sector: {{Health}} | We have gender equality in our organization. | Trade union: {{PSMBTU }} | Sector: {{Public sector}} | There is no gender pay gap. {{Germany}} | Trade union: {{Ver.di}} | Sector: {{Public sector}} | For the public sector as a whole, the Federal Statistical Office identifies a gender pay gap of around 7%. This does not cover the whole of the care sector since much of the sector is privatized and the data for the public sector is not specifically extracted. According to the Federal Statistical Office we have a gender pay gap of 15% in the education sector and one of 8% in public administration, defence and social security. This gender pay gap is independent of the number of hours worked. Ver.di believes that these figures are too low. Calculations in the field of local government reveal a completely different picture: In June 2009 the average gross monthly pay of a worker employed in the public sector at local authority level (employees subject to collective agreements, excluding civil servants) was EUR 2,340. If the figure is calculated separately for women, the amount is EUR 2,080. The gross monthly income of women is thus around 89% of that of workers as a whole. Figures for the gross monthly pay of men alone are not available; it can, however, be assumed that the difference between the incomes of women and men is more than 11%. In June 2007 the average gross monthly pay of a worker employed in the public sector at local authority level was EUR 2,170. If the figure is calculated separately for women, the amount is EUR 1,910. The gross monthly income of women was thus around 88% of that of workers as a whole. Figures for the gross monthly pay of men alone are not available; it can, however, be assumed that the difference between the incomes of women and men was more than 12%. It can be assumed that the gender pay gap, to the extent that any figures are available, has been at around this level for some years. {{Moldova}} | Trade union: {{Sanatatea}} | Sector: {{Health}} | We should point out that the legal provisions in the Republic of Moldova with regard to payment for work make no allowance for discrimination on the basis of sex, age, disability, social background, family situation, ethnicity, race or nationality, political choices or religious beliefs, or trade union affiliation or activity. No discrimination between women and men is permitted in the setting and paying of salaries. However, there is a difference between the average salaries of men and women. This difference is due to the fact that 79.8 per cent of managerial posts are occupied by men, whose salary is double, or more than double, the average at each institution. {{Netherlands}} | Trade union: {{Abvakabo}} | Sector: {{Public sector}} | In 2008 the ninth report equal pay was released. The report shows that the adjusted (the difference in pay between men and women in equal positions taking account of training, job level, years of experience etc) pay gap between men and women in the business sector in 2006 was 6.5%. (Women earned 6.5% less than men). By comparison, in 2004 the adjusted pay gap between men and women in the business sector was 7.4%, a decline of almost 1%. The unadjusted pay gap between men and women was in the business sector in 2006 averaged 23%. Largely the pay gap is attributable to differences in background between men and women. The authors of the report notes in this context that women compared with men are generally younger and less educated; often work part-time; quite often have an administrative or caring function; often have a function of a relatively low level; have more flexible contracts of employment; often work in the health and welfare sector, and less often than men work in the industry and construction sector. The adjusted pay gap between men and women in the public sector (education, judiciary and defence) was 2.6% in 2006. Compared to 2004, the adjusted pay gap slightly decreased. In 2004 it was 2.9% . In the public sector the unadjusted pay gap was 12%. {{Norway}} | Trade union: {{NSF – nurses}} | Sector: {{Health/Municipal}} | [2011 update] An important aspect of the gender pay gap in Norway, is that it increases with the level of education. At cross sector level the gender pay gap has fallen from 13.2% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2010 but for workers with 1-4 years of higher education the gap has actually increased over the same period from 19.3% to 20.2%. In the municipal sector the overall gender pay gap was 6.8% in 2010 down from 8.1% in 2005. For workers with 1-4 years of higher education the pay gap was 9.2% in 2010, down from 9.4% in 2005. {{Romania}} | Trade union: {{Sanitas}} | Sector: {{Health}} | The gender gap in the health care sector between women and men is very low and it manifests by the job position (generally men have leadership jobs – hospital managers, head of sections and compartments in the hospitals). There is more time dedicated for their activity (more on duty time). {{Slovakia}} | Trade union: {{Sozzass}} | Sector: {{Health}} | In 2010 women's average pay as a percentage of men's average pay was 75.7% among doctors (77.6% in 2006); 86.3% among nurses (88.5% in 2006); 89.5% among laboratory technicians (88.0% in 2006) and 72.1% among labourers, cleaners etc. (72.6% in 2006). Among pharmacists women's average pay was higher than men's - 105.8% in 2010, up from 100.6% in 2006. {{Sweden}} | Trade union: {{Vision}} | Sector: {{Municipal white collar}} | Between 2002 and 2006 women's average pay as a percentage of men's average pay rose from 90% to 92% but remained unchanged at 98% after taking account of working hours. | Trade union: {{Kommunal}} | Sector: {{Municipal blue collar}} | Since the end of the 1980s, the wage gap has fallen for workers in the male-dominated manufacturing industry. Kommunal's average salary as a percentage of average salary for workers in the manufacturing industry has increased from 84% in 1989 to 88% in 2004 and is projected at 90% by 2011. | Trade union: {{ST}} | Sector: {{National administration}} | In 2000, the gender pay gap was about 17%, decreasing to 13.8% by 2007. The pay gap differs between different age groups and the higher age group an individual is in the higher wage differential. Meanwhile, those who leave the state twice the difference in pay as those who are new. The main factor explaining the largest proportion of the wage difference is that more and more men than women have higher-level work. Another important explanation may be found in the younger generations in which the element of equality in the levying of such parental leave, child care, working with more increases. The opportunities for women to pursue careers increases, wage differentials and differences in sickness absence is expected to decrease. {{UK}} | Trade union: {{PCS}} | Sector: {{National administration}} | The 2009 gender pay gap for full time civil servants is 13% down from 15% in 2008. For part time civil servants the gap is 5.1%, compared with 2.4% in 2008. The gender gap for all civil servants has decreased to 16% from 18% in 2008. | Trade union: {{RCN}} | Sector: {{Health}} | The gender pay gap in the public sector was 11.6% for full-timers, 18.3% for part-timers and 21.0% for all employees. In the private sector, the pay gap was 20.8% for full-timers, 0.4% for part-timers and 28.8% for all employees. For the professions, the gender pay gap is 3.8%. | Trade union: {{UNISON}} | Sector: {{Public Sector}} | [2011 update] For 2009-10 The gender pay gap in the public sector was 10.0 per cent for full-timers, 20.6 per cent for part-timers and 19.2 per cent for all employees. This compares to 10.2% for full time employees, minus 4% for part time employees and 19.8% for all employees across the private and public sector. Statistics have been collated using this methodology since 1997 and can be accessed [here->www.statistics.gov.uk]. The overall trend is a very slow closure of the gender pay gap, particularly slowly for part-time women workers.