The EU and eastern Europe and central Asia (EECA)

PSIRU, August 2012

This paper examines EU policies and institutions affecting the 12 countries of the former Soviet Union.

- The EU has a general European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) covering countries on or near its eastern and southern borders. The eastern countries covered are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. These countries are also part of the Eastern Partnership (EP).

- Russia is not covered by the ENP or the EP but is the subject of a specific Strategic Partnership

- The other former Soviet Union countries - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan - are not covered by the ENP or the EP, but by a general Central Asia Strategy

- Other EU policies and initiatives, especially on energy, also affect countries in all these areas especially the Energy Community Treaty, the Inogate programme, and the Energy Charter Treaty.

- The activities of the EU development banks, the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), also affect public services in the region. It is also important to note the presence of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), to which most countries in the region belong.

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